Terms cannabinoid cannabidiol cannabis endocannabinoid system hemp terpenes tetrahydrocannabinol
CBD, ISOLATE, FULL-SPECTRUM
Cannabidiol, commonly referred to as CBD, is a molecular compound found in the cannabis and hemp plant proven to be an effective holistic treatment for a wide range of health conditions, ailments, and diseases. CBD has been scientifically proven to modulate and repair many physiological systems in the human brain and body, through the endocannabinoid system. Found in all mammals, the endocannabinoid system is made up of several receptors that react only to cannabinoids, such as CBD and the more well-known compound, THC (tetrahydrocannabinol). 1
CBD isolate is a crystalline powder comprised of 99%+ pure CBD; it is extracted using ethanol as a solvent, in order to separate the compounds of the cannabis plant itself OR extracted by pushing CO2 (carbon dioxide) through plant matter inside a series of filtration chambers. Secondly, through chromatography (separation method), desired plant compounds are selected or removed, leaving only the CBD. Lastly, the process of decarboxylation, is wherein chemists apply heat in order to activate the cannabidiol, rendering it ready for consumption and absorption by the body’s endocannibinoid system.
THC vs CBD:
Unlike THC, CBD is 100% non- psychoactive and does notproduce the adverse sensation of being “high.” CBD comes in many variations and can be taken as a general health booster or as an alternative remedy. CBD products include topical creams and ointments (beauty and medical), aromatherapy, tinctures (drops), vape oils, ingestible (drinks and food), and many more.
There have been identified 113 cannabinoids isolated from the cannabis plant.
CBD reduced the median number of seizures each month by 39% compared to 13% for placebo- treated patients.
Research and clinical studies have produced a growing list of evidence to support the usage of CBD (along with THC), on its own or in conjunction with an existing treatment.
In children, CBD has been observed by parents and clinicians to have a favourable and, in certain trials, a dramatically positive affect in management of seizures, multiple sclerosis and promoting socialisation in children with autism. 5
Unlike CBD isolate, full-spectrum CBD can contain some or all 113 identified cannabinoids and 200 terpenes. Due to this, for optimal and maximum efficacy, some advocate for full-spectrum CBD over isolate. 3Also, in order to balance THC:CBD with one another, it’s recommended that a balanced or lesser-THC ratio be considered.
Applications with higher THC are typically favoured for anxiety, depression, appetite, and certain pain.
Lower dose cannabis products with THC can also be used by those not managing a physical condition; many use it as an holistic sleep aid, creativity, and staying productive/efficient while working.
Uses & Applications
Research and clinical trials have shown favourable response to CBD treatment for the following conditions and/or their side-effects:
• Alcoholism • PTSD • Crohn's • Diabetes • Chronic pain • Depression • Parkinson’s disease
• Huntington’s disease
•Arthritis •Osteoporosis •Asthma •Epileptic seizures Psoriasis •Multiple Sclerosis Anxiety •Anorexia •Nausea •Morphine dependency 3
2. https://www.calyxwellnesscentre.com/pages/what-is-cbd-1 3. https://www.leafscience.com/2017/12/08/marijuana-entourage-effect/ 4&5. http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa1611618#t=article
There are at least 2 types of cannabinoidreceptors, both coupled to G-proteins.CB1 receptors are present in the central
nervous system & CB1 & CB2 receptorsin certain peripheral tissues.
Clinical trial of THC, CBD, THC:CBD, efficacy:
Gallily, Yekhtin, Hanuš et al. (2015) Overcoming the Bell-Shaped Dose-Response of Cannabidiol by Using Cannabis Extract Enriched in Cannabidiol, Pharmacology & Pharmacy, vol.6, 70-75., 2015 http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.as px?paperID=53912
Prescription opioid substitution:
Walsh, Z., Lucas, P. (2017) “Medical cannabis access, use, and substitution for prescription opioids and other substances: A survey of authorised medical cannabis patients” International Journal of Drug Policy, vol. 43, 30-35, http://www.ijdp.org/ article/S0955-3959(17)30013-0/fulltext
Balash Y, Bar-Lev Schleider, Korczyn, et al. (2015) “Medical Cannabis in Parkinson Disease: Real-Life Patients' Experience.” Clin Neuropharmacol. vol. 40, no. 6:268-272. doi: 10.1097/WNF.0000000000000246.
Stromal cells, connective tissue and arthritis treatment:
Gui, Liu, Wang et al. (2014) Expression of cannabinoid receptor 2 and its inhibitory effects on synovial fibroblasts in rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatology, vol 53, no. 5, 802-809. https://doi.org/10.1093/rheumatology/ket447
Hussain, Shaun, et al. (2015) Perceived efficacy of cannabidiol-enriched cannabis extracts for treatment of paediatric epilepsy: A potential role for infantile spasms and Lennox-Gaustaut syndrome. Epilepsy and Behaviour, vol 47, 138-142 doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yebeh.2015.04.009
Leweke, F. Markus & Piomelli, D & Muhl, D. (2012). Cannabidiol enhances anandamide signalling and alleviates psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia. Transl Psychiatry. 2. 1-7. doi: 10.1038/tp.2012.15
Autism and epilepsy:
Derakhshan, N., Hooshanginezhad, Z. (2017) “Is Cannabis the New Cool for Autism?”... Anderson, DeMarse, Feb et al. Cannabidiol for the treatment of drug-resistant epilepsy in children: current state of research. Journal of Pediatric Neurology, vol 15, no. 4, 187-190. doi: doi:10.1055/s-0037-1605582
Johnson JR, Burnell-Nugent M, Lossignol D, Ganae-Motan ED, Potts R, Fallon MT. Multicenter, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of the efficacy, safety and tolerability of thc:cbd extract and thc extract in patients with intractable cancer-related pain. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2010;39:167–78. doi: 10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2009.06.008.
Chemotherapy-Induced nerve pain:
Lynch ME, Cesar-Rittenberg P, Hohmann AG. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover pilot trial with extension using an oral mucosal cannabinoid extract for treatment of chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2014;47:166–73. doi: 10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2013.02.018.